The great epics – the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were written in Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh also had the glory of being home to Lord Buddha. It has now been established that Gautama Buddha spent most of his life in eastern Uttar Pradesh, wandering from place to place preaching his sermons. Maurya dynasty and Gupta Empire ruled over nearly the whole of Uttar Pradesh. During this time that culture and architecture reached its peak. In 1526, Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat. Babar carried out extensive campaign in various parts of Uttar Pradesh. Kings named Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb ruled over Uttar Pradesh. With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire declined at an amazing pace. The period of Shahjahan is known as the golden period of India in art, culture, and architecture. It was during his reign that the classical wonder Taj Mahal was built in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. He also constructed the famous Red Fort in Delhi as well as the Jama Masjid and Moti Mahal
Modern-day Uttar Pradesh saw the rise of important freedom fighters on the national scenario. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Jawaharlal Nehru, Smt. Indira Gandhi, and Charan Singh were only a few of the important names who played a significant role in India’s freedom movement and also rose to become the prime ministers of this great nation.
Uttar Pradesh is fourth largest state of India. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into four physical regions: In the north, the Uttar Pradesh Himalayas including Nandadevi, and other parts such as Badrinath and Shivling, with the holy Ganges (Ganga) rising in their midst. In the south, the Shivalik hills run parallel with the Himalayas, succeeded by the Babar and the Terai. The Gangetic Plain occupies three quarters of the state, gently dropping from 365 m in the northwest to 80 m in the east at Varanasi (Banaras). The fourth region comprises the northern margins of the peninsula, including the outer slopes of the Vindhya Mountains in the southeast, which rises more than 600 m in certain points. The places like The Taj of Agra, mausoleum of Fatehpur Sikri and Babri Masjid are worth to visit.
Geography: Uttar Pradesh shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh Jharkhand and Bihar. In the north side, it includes the Ganga-Yamuna Doab; the Ghaghra plains; the Ganga plains and the Terai. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and flat topography – (slope 2 m/km) – broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers.In the south part it includes the smaller Vindhya Hills and plateau region in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata; varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited availability of water.
How to reach Uttar Pradesh
By Air: Agra airport is 7 km from the city centre and 3 km from Idgah bus stand. Major Indian airlines operate daily tourist shuttle flights to Agra, Khajuraho, Varanasi and back. It only takes 40 minutes from Delhi to Agra.
By Road: Idgah bus stand is the main bus stand of Agra, from where one can catch buses for Delhi, Jaipur, Mathura, Fatehpur-Sikri, etc. Buses for Mathura also leave from Agra Fort bus stand.
By Rail: Agra is well connected by railroad. The main railway station is the Agra Cantonment station. Agra is well connected by rail to Delhi, Varanasi and cities of Rajasthan. Trains like Palace on Wheel, Shatabdi, Rajdhani, and Taj Express are the best choices if you want to reach Agra from Delhi in luxury.